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The following Assignments should be completed and submitted to the course faculty via the learning platform for evaluation and grading. Submit your responses to these questions in one WORD document. List the question first, and then your response.

Be sure to properly site your sources, both in-text and with a reference list at the conclusion. If you use an online source to support your answers, you must provide a properly formatted link to the source. You should use APA citation format and make sure your sources are credible.

In most cases, your responses should be no more than 500 words.

1. Researchers at both the University of Michigan and The Ohio State University launched a major research effort directed at the identification of the behaviors associated with effective leadership. Compare and contrast the findings from the Michigan and Ohio State studies.

2. Bowers and Seashore (1966) suggested that group effectiveness was, in part, dependent upon the presence of a set of behaviors that we commonly associate with leadership. They went on to note, however, that it was not necessary that the leader per se directed these behaviors to the group. Discuss what Bowers and Seashore meant by this, and comment upon why a leader is important, assuming that they are not supplying the group with these key behaviors.

3. Stogdill (1948) suggested that leadership consists of movement and getting work accomplished. He noted that the leader-follower relationship can be seen as a working relationship, one in which the leader orchestrates group activity. Under the influence of Stogdill, researchers at The Ohio State University worked at identification of those leader behaviors associated with group effectiveness. What were the major behaviors that grew out of their research efforts?

4. Discuss the interaction between leader self-sacrifice and self-confidence as researched by Cremer and van Knippenberg. How does this relate to leadership effectiveness? How is this effect mediated by collective identification?

5. What is the meaning associated with the following two statements, and what do they share in common? (A) According to Murphy (1941), leadership can be seen as a function of what it is that an individual has to offer, and the nature of the demands placed upon followers by the situation in which they are embedded? (B) Stogdill (1948), as a part of his review of the leadership literature, suggested that leadership is a working relationship—one in which different contexts create a unique set of group needs, and a group’s emerging leader is that individual who is capable of making meaningful contributions to the group.

6. According to Stogdill (1948), “the qualities, characteristics, skills required in a leader are determined to a large extent by the demands of the situation in which he [she] is to function as a leader.” What type of relationship is being portrayed here between the three variables the leader, the group’s outcome, and the situation? Discuss the nature of this interactive relationship between the leader and the situation.

7. What are the four key leader behaviors identified in the path-goal theory of leadership? How do they relate to the University of Michigan and The Ohio State University leadership studies? Discuss the conditions under which each leader behavior might be effective and reasons for this relationship

8. House and Mitchell’s (1974) discussion of path-goal theory suggests that leader effectiveness will be a function of the degree to which they can successfully shift back-and-forth among different leader behaviors (e.g., supportive, directive, participative, and achievement-oriented). Fiedler (1974), on the other hand, suggests that it is difficult for leaders to make these shifts because of the powerful role played by their task or relationship-oriented need hierarchy. Thus, he calls for task re-engineering. Discuss these two competing perspectives. Argue how and why each perspective might be true.


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